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托福阅读 | 为什么我们要听托福讲座的文章结构

  • 来源:朗阁教育
  • 2018-01-22 15:45:27.000
  • 编辑:朗阁教育

托福文章的结构有什么用呢?把握文章的结构又有什么意义?今天朗阁海外考试研究中心的老师们就和大家一起来解读一下结构的意义。

为什么我们要听托福讲座的文章结构

(系列文章之一:比较结构)

 

朗阁海外考试研究中心  黄蓉Vicky

 

在听力课中介绍结构层次笔记法的时候同学们通常能够理解听懂层次是为了定位到听力文章的出题层次,把握文章的主要逻辑,并通过明确的层次概念排除不在该层次的错误选项,提高得出正确选项的机率。

 

然而很多同学都会有疑惑,文章的结构又有什么用呢?把握文章的结构有什么意义?今天朗阁海外考试研究中心的老师们就和大家一起来解读一下结构的意义。

 

相信大家会发现托福听力和国内四六级考试以及中高考听力之间的核心区别并不在于考试形式是机考还是纸质考试,难点在于托福听力考试信息量较大,内容涵盖各类学科,涉及生词多,最重要的是我们无法在考试前看到题目,而在考试紧张的状态下大部分同学是无法一字不漏地听懂原文的,所以我们需要最大程度地去预测出题点,预测笔记的重点,思考出题人会在哪些点出题以及会以怎样的形式出题,这样才能让我们更从容应对难度日益加大的托福听力考试。

 

所以除了通过出题原则和信号词去预判可能出现的出题点,通过层次去筛选选项之外,我们听文章结构的意义在于根据结构把握重要的出题原则并预测该出题原则的出题形式,从而更好地把握住一些易失分的细节信息点。

 

首先我们以TPO1 LECTURE4为例,这篇讲座是很典型的比较结构文章,文中比较了Eastern Marmot和Olympic Marmot的动物行为,在听音过程中大多数同学也都能够预测到这篇文章可以通过文章的比较结构预判文章可能会考察比较原则,即考察两种marmot在动物行为方面的不同,而该篇讲座也以配对题的形式考察了比较原则,题目如下:

 

3. Drag the appropriate description of each marmot species' behavior to the box below the marmot's name.

Click on a phrase. Then drag it to the space where it belongs.

Eastern Marmot Olympic Marmot

One of the phrases will not be used

displays aggressive tendencies

is family oriented

says active during the winter

 

在原文中先对Eastern marmots进行了描述they are really territorial, and loners, and just so aggressive even with other Eastern marmots. And their mating rituals just so impersonal. 而在Olympic Marmot部分原文不仅描述了Olympic Marmot的特点是they live together as a family and take care of their young until they are at least two years old. They’re really friendly with each other. And what I really like is that they even have greeting ceremonies. 原文紧接着重复了上文对于Eastern marmots的描述,And they are not at all aggressive and territorial like the Eastern marmots.把两者进行了比较,所以同学们可以轻松得出,Eastern Marmot匹配的特点是第二条displays aggressive tendencies, 而Olympic Marmot对应的特点是第三条is family oriented。

 

然而比较结构中的出题形式并不只以简单的单个匹配呈现,还有更为复杂的配对题变体,如多项的表格题。相较单个配对题,多项表格题的考察就更加细致,我们以TPO5 LECTURE4的表格题为例,从文章一开头的介绍:Now we can't really talk about fairy tales without first talking about folk tales because there's a strong connection between these two genres, these two types of stories.我们就可以直观了解到这篇文章的结构是属于比较结构,针对比较结构的文章我们不但需要记录比较的点,对于文中提及的各种文体的特点都需要记录清楚。如果我们只是单纯等待文章中出现fairy tales和folk tales才去记录不同点的话可能会错失表格题中的一些细节。

 

Q5. In the lecture, the professor discusses characteristics of folktales and fairy tales, indicate the characteristics of each type of the tale.

Click in the correct boxes. This question is worth two points.

 

folktales

fairy tales

Their appeal is now mainly to children

 

The plot is the only stable element

 

The tales are transmitted orally

 

There is one accepted version

 

Characters are well developed

 

The language is relatively formal

 

 

按照文章组织的结构和层次来讲,在第一个层次介绍folktale时就罗列了folktale的一系列特点,如Well, they are old stories, traditional stories. They were passed down orally within cultures from generation to generation, so they changed a lot over time. 在此处原文提到了folktale的两大特点:一个是old,还有一点是passed down orally,而oral正好对应了表格中的第三条The tales are transmitted orally。

 

另外在讲folktale的特点时还提到So essentially the same tale could be told in different communities, with certain aspects of the tale adapted to fit the specific community. Um, not the plot, the details of what happens in the story would remain constant. 这里提到folktale的plot不会改变对应表格中的第二条,The plot is the only stable element也是同学们在做该题时较易忽略的一个特点。

 

第二层中介绍fairy tales,先提到了一些基本特点如:less realistic、royalty、location unspecified等。当学生问及在关于fairy tale是否是oral folk tale时,教授解释到These were eventually published as fairytales, but not before undering a process of evolution. Now, a number of things happen when an oral tale gets written down. First, the language changes. It becomes more formal, more standard. 此处对应表格题第六条The language is relatively formal.

 

比较完语言之后紧接着通过比较folk tales和fairytales,得出fairytales的特点,在版本方面when an orally transmitted story is written down, an authoritative version with a recognized author is created.对应表格中的第四条There is one accepted version. 在角色塑造上descriptions of characters and settings can be developed more completely.对应第五条Characters are well developed. 最后比较了两者的目标观众,原文提到Who the stories are meant for? Contrary to what many people believe today, folk tales were originally intended for adults, not for children. So why is it that fairy tales seem targeted toward children nowadays? fairy tales的目标观众是children对应第一条Their appeal is now mainly to children。

 

从这篇讲座我们可以看出配对表格题比单一的配对题考察得更加细致,听到比较结构的文章,我们在做笔记时,不仅仅需要关注比较的部分,更要细心地关注到文章提及的两个比较主体之间各自的特点。做好预测和记录,把握结构和出题点,将配对表格题一网打尽!

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